PK of Lepidopteran Insecticides: Which is better, Emamectin Benzoate, Chlorfenapyr, Indoxacarb, Tebufenozide, or Lufenuron?
Due to the resistance problem of benzamide products, various products that have been silent for more than ten years have come to the forefront. Among them, the five most popular and widely used ingredients are Emamectin Benzoate, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, tebufenozide, and lufenuron.
The insecticidal effects of the five ingredients have their own advantages and disadvantages, and it is impossible to generalize. This article makes a simple analysis and comparison of the five components from the following aspects to provide some reference for everyone to screen products.
chlorfenapyr: is a new type of pyrrole compound. It acts on the mitochondria of insect cells and works through the multifunctional oxidase in insects, mainly inhibiting the transformation of the enzyme.
Indoxacarb: It is a highly effective diazine insecticide. It disables nerve cells by blocking sodium ion channels in insect nerve cells. Causes the pest to become dyskinetic, unable to feed, paralyzed and eventually die.
Tebufenozide: It is a new non-steroidal insect growth regulator and the newly developed insect hormone insecticide. It has an agonistic effect on the ecdysone receptors of pests, which can accelerate the abnormal molting of pests and inhibit feeding, resulting in physiological disorders and starvation of pests.
Lufenuron: The latest generation to replace urea insecticides. It belongs to the benzoylurea class of insecticides, which kill pests by acting on insect larvae and preventing the peeling process.
Emamectin Benzoate: commonly referred to as "Emamectin" in the industry, it is a new type of high-efficiency semi-synthetic antibiotic insecticide synthesized from the fermented product Emamectin B1. It has been used for a long time in China. It is also a common pesticide product.
1. Comparison of insecticidal methods
Chlorfenapyr: It has stomach poisoning and contact-killing effects, has strong penetrability on plant leaves, has a certain systemic effect, and does not kill eggs.
Indoxacarb: has stomach poisoning and contact-killing effect, no systemic effect, no ovicidal effect.
Tebufenozide: It has no osmotic effect and phloem systemic activity, mainly through gastric toxicity, and also has certain contact-killing properties and strong ovicidal activity.
Lufenuron: It has stomach poisoning and contact-killing effects, no systemic absorption, and a strong ovicidal effect.
Emamectin Benzoate: mainly stomach poison, and also has contact-killing effect. Its insecticidal mechanism is to hinder the motor nerve of pests.
The five are mainly stomach poisoning and contact-killing, and the penetrating agent/expanding agent (pesticide adjuvant) will greatly improve the killing effect when spraying.
2. Comparison of insecticidal spectrum
Insecticidal broad-spectrum: Emamectin Benzoate > Chlorfenapyr > lufenuron > indoxacarb ≥Tebufenozide
Chlorfenapyr: It has excellent control effect on borer, piercing and chewing pests and mites, especially against Plutella xylostella, Beet armyworm, Spodoptera litura, Leafroller, Liriomyza sativa, The effect of pod borer, thrips, red spider, etc. is remarkable;
Indoxacarb: It is mainly used for the control of lepidopteran pests such as beet armyworm, diamondback moth, Pieris rapae, Spodoptera litura, Helicoverpa armigera, tobacco caterpillar and leafroller.
Tebufenozide: It has a unique effect on all lepidopteran pests, and has special effects on the resistant pests such as Helicoverpa armigera, Pieris rapae, diamondback moth, beet armyworm, etc.
Lufenuron: It is mainly used to control leafroller, diamondback moth, Pieris rapae, beet armyworm, Spodoptera litura, whitefly, thrips, and other pests, especially in the control of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.
Emamectin Benzoate: It has extremely high activity on lepidopteran larvae and many other pests and mites, and has both stomach poisoning and contact killing effects. To Lepidoptera, Potato tuberworm, Beet armyworm, Carposina sasakii, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas, Pieris rapae, Ostrinia nubilalis, Diaphania indica, and Helicoverpa assulta have good control effect. Especially effective against Lepidoptera and Diptera.
3. Dead insect speed comparison
Insecticidal rate: chlorfenapyr > indoxacarb > tebufenozide > lufenuron > emamectin
Chlorfenapyr: 1 hour after spraying, the pest activity becomes weak, spots appear, the color changes, the activity stops, coma, paralysis, and eventually death, and the dead insect peak is reached within 24 hours.
Indoxacarb: Insects stop feeding within 0 to 4 hours and are immediately paralyzed. The coordination ability of insects will decrease (which can cause larvae to fall from crops), and generally die within 1 to 3 days after the drug is administered.
Tebufenozide: After the insects feed, it can interfere and destroy the original hormone balance in the insects, and lead to refusal to feed. Generally, the pests stop harming after 5 hours of feeding, and the peeling reaction occurs in 1-2 days, and the peeling is incomplete in 2-3 days. , refusal to eat, lose water all over the body, and eventually die, reaching the peak of dead insects in about 3 days.
Lufenuron: After the pests come into contact with the pesticide and eat the leaves with the pesticide, the mouth will be anesthetized within 2 hours, and the feeding will be stopped, thereby stopping the damage to the crops, and the peak of dead insects will be reached in 3 to 5 days.
Formate: The pests are irreversibly paralyzed, stop eating, and die after 2-4 days, and the insecticidal speed is slow.
4. Duration comparison
Persistence period: Emamectin Benzoate > lufenuron > tebufenozide > indoxacarb > chlorfenapyr
Chlorfenapyr: It does not kill eggs, but only has outstanding control effect on older insects. The insect control time is about 7 to 10 days.
Indoxacarb: It does not kill eggs, but kills both large and small lepidopteran pests. The control effect is about 12 to 15 days.
Tebufenozide: It has good ovicidal ability, and will form chemical sterilization after the pests eat, so the duration of validity is longer, generally about 15-30 days.
Lufenuron: It has a strong ovicidal effect, and the insect control time is relatively long, up to 25 days.
Emamectin Benzoate: long lasting effect, 10-15 days for pests and 15-25 days for mites.
5. Comparison of leaf retention rate
Leaf preservation rate: lufenuron > Emamectin Benzoate > indoxacarb > tebufenozide ≥ Chlorfenapyr
The ultimate goal of pest control is to prevent pests from harming crops. As for whether the pests die more or less quickly, it is only a matter of people's perception. The level of leaf preservation is the final indicator to measure the value of the product.
Compared with the control effect of rice leaf roller, the leaf preservation rate of lufenuron can reach more than 90%, Emamectin Benzoate can reach 80.7%, indoxacarb can reach 80%, both tebufenozide and chlorfenapyr reached about 65%.
6. Security Comparison
Safety: Emamectin Benzoate ≥ tebufenozide ≥ indoxacarb > lufenuron > chlorfenapyr
Lufenuron: So far, there is no phytotoxicity report, and at the same time, the agent will not cause the rampant piercing-sucking pests, and has a mild effect on the adults of beneficial insects and predatory spiders.
Chlorfenapyr: Sensitive to cruciferous vegetables and melon crops, high temperature or high doses are prone to phytotoxicity;
Indoxacarb: It is highly safe and has no phytotoxic reaction. Vegetables or fruits can be picked and eaten on the second day of application.
Tebufenozide: It is also highly safe, has no phytotoxic reaction, and can lead to chemical sterilization of some lepidopteran pests after use. At the same time, there will be a second dead insect period after 10 days, and it has no toxic and side effects on bees, predatory mites, etc. , so highly secure.
Emamectin Benzoate: It is highly safe for all crops in protected areas or 10 times the recommended dosage, an environmentally friendly and low-toxic pesticide.
7. Medication Cost Comparison
It is calculated according to the quotations of various manufacturers and the dosage used in recent years.
The drug cost comparison is: indoxacarb > chlorfenapyr > tebufenozide > lufenuron > Emamectin Benzoate
8. The general feeling of the five medicines in actual use
Lufenuron felt very general when used for the first time, and felt very unusual when used twice in a row.
On the contrary, the effect of chlorfenapyr is very good for the first use, and the effect is very ordinary after two consecutive uses.
The effects of Emamectin Benzoate, indoxacarb and tebufenozide are roughly in between.
For the current pest resistance situation, it is recommended to adopt the method of "prevention first, comprehensive prevention and control", and measures (physical, chemical, biological and other measures) should be taken in the early stage for effective prevention and control, so as to reduce the frequency and amount of drug use in the later stage, and delay the drug resistance. .
When taking chemical control, it is recommended to use plant-derived or biological-derived insecticides such as: pyrethrin, picrophyllin, matrine, etc., and mix them with chemical agents, use them in rotation, etc., to achieve the purpose of reducing drug resistance; When chemical agents are used, it is recommended to use them in combination or alternately to achieve good control effects.