Base Dressing Fertilizers in Autumn
There is a closely connection between the accumulation and consumption of nutrients in the annual lifecycle of fruit trees. In the early stage of fruit trees growth, a lot of nutrients are the necessity for metabolism of roots, branches, leaves and flowers. While, in the later stage, due to the increase of photosynthesis, the accumulation of nutrients is greater than consumption.
The main source of nutrients consumed in the early stage of growth is nutrients accumulated in the fruit trees, however, it is certainly not enough for yield, so base dressing fertilizers and its appropriate application timing is very essential.
Why the base dressing fertilizer is so important in Autumn?
In the Autumn, it is beneficial to accumulate the nutrient for fruit trees, the ground part of trees stops growing, and foliar photosynthesis is still vigorous, which is conducive to nutrients accumulation for the stems and branches.
Root growth of fruit tree will be more vigorous in Autumn. New roots are quickly growing with vital activity, strong nutrient absorption capacity. Strong roots system is conducive to stay leaf vitality, enhance leaf photosynthetic capacity, improve fertilizer utilization, increase nutrients accumulation.
The higher soil temperature and better moisture in autumn are beneficial for soil microbial activity, thus fertilizers are easily absorbed and utilized by the root system. Choosing suitable organic fertilizers, such as humic acid, can improve the organic matter content in the soil, and change the agglomeration structure of the soil by improving the pore space, permeability and fertilizer and water retention capacity. Also, base dressing fertilizers can increase soil temperature to prevent frost damage to the roots of fruit trees.
How to use the base dressing fertilizers effectively?
Generally, the appropriate time to base dressing is the period of after-harvest to before-leaf falling. After harvest, the earlier the base dressing fertilizer is applied, the more beneficial to the recovery of fruit trees, and also conducive to development of branches and buds, and improve the quality and number of buds. Weak trees with nutrition deficiency should be appropriately advanced the time of fertilizers.
Most of base dressing fertilizers are organic fertilizers, such as humus acid, compost, manure, compound fertilizer and green manure, etc. Supplemented with NPK or microelements fertilizers, and bio fertilizers, base dressing fertilizers can have better performance on fruit yield and quality in the next year.
The usages recommended for fruiting trees per 1kg fruits:
2~2.5kg of manure + 2~2.5kg of compound fertilizer + 3~4kg of secondary elements and microelements fertilizers + 5~8kg of bio fertilizer.
The usages recommended for young trees per plant:
50~75kg of manure + 0.5~1.5kg of compound fertilizer + 1~2kg of secondary elements and microelements fertilizers + 3~5kg of bio fertilizer.
In agricultural practice, fertilizing by circular ditching, radial ditching, strip ditching after deep digging is recommended.
1. Circular ditch for young trees:
Dig a ring ditch with 50cm deep and wide at the outer edge of the tree crown, then mix fertilizer with soil evenly in the ditch, and cover the ditch.
2. Radial ditch for adult fruit trees:
Centered on the tree, one meter away from the tree, dig 4~8 ditches in radial lines outward, with a trapezoid of the length is 50 cm and the depth is 15cm to 50cm.
3. Strip ditch for high density orchard:
Digging two ditches with 50cm depth and width on the two sides of tree, the length depends on the branch spread. Pay attention to change the fertilizers each year.
Recommended order of fertilizer is: organic fertilizer, bio fertilizer, then compound fertilizer, microelements fertilizer after backfilling the topsoil.
Watering when fertilizing will beneficial to improve fertilizers effect.
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